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生物質氣化爐设计要点

  我國每年林業廢棄物和農業生産剩余物質産量高達7億t,如何有效利用這一巨大資源,已成爲擺在科研工作者面前的重要課題。生物質氣化技術改變了直接燃燒生物質的利用方式,提高了廢棄生物質的能源品位,對節約常規能源、降低環境汙染、保護生態環境具有重要意義。
Every year in our country forestry waste and surplus of agricultural production material production up to 700 million t, how to effectively utilize the huge resources, has become an important topic in front of scientific research workers. Biomass gasification technology changed the way direct combustion biomass utilization, improve the grade of waste biomass energy, to save conventional energy, reduce environmental pollution, protect the ecological environment is of great significance.
  下吸式固定床气化炉由于具有结构简单,易于操作,产出气焦油含量低等优点已经得到了广泛的应用。生物质气化过程是一个复杂的热化学反应过程,生物質氣化爐各部位结构尺寸将极大地影响气化炉的热效率、产气成分和产气品质,故设计合理的生物質氣化爐是有效利用生物质能的关键。
Suction under the fixed bed gasifier with simple structure, easy to operate, the output gas low tar content advantages has been widely used. Biomass gasification process is a complex thermal chemical reaction process, each part of the biomass gasifier structure size will greatly affect the thermal efficiency of gasifier, gas composition and gas quality, so the reasonable design of biomass gasifier is the key to effective utilization of biomass energy.
作爲氣化劑的空氣從氣化爐側壁空氣噴嘴吹入,其産出氣的流動方向與物料下落的方向一致,故下吸式氣化爐也稱爲順流式氣化爐。吹入的空氣與物料混合燃燒,這一區域稱爲氧化區,溫度約爲900~1200℃,産生的熱量用于支持熱解區裂解反應和還原區還原反應的進行;氧化區的上部爲熱解區,溫度約爲300~700℃,在這一區域,生物質中的揮發分(裂解氣、焦油以及水分)分離出來;熱解區的上部爲幹燥區,物料在此區域被預熱;在氧化區的下部爲還原區,氧化區産生的CO2和碳、水蒸氣在這一區域進行還原反應,同時殘余的焦油在此區域發生裂解反應,産生以CO和H2爲主的産出氣,這一區域的溫度約爲700~900℃。由于來自熱解區富含焦油的氣體須經過高溫氧化區和以熾熱焦炭爲主的還原區,氣體中的焦油在高溫下被裂解,從而使産出氣中的焦油大爲減少。
As the gasification agent of air blowing in from the gasifier wall air nozzle, the whereabouts of the output direction of gas flow and material in the same direction, so the suction under gasifier is also referred to as forward gasifier. Blow into the air and material mixed burning, an area known as the oxidation zone, the temperature is about 900 ~ 1200 ℃, the heat generated by the support area pyrolytic cracking reaction and reduction of area reduction reaction; Oxidation zone of the pyrolysis zone, the temperature is about 300 ~ 700 ℃, in the area, the biomass of volatile (cracking gas, tar, and moisture) isolated; Pyrolysis of upside for arid region, the material in this area is hot; At the bottom of the oxidation zone to reduction zone, area of CO2 and carbon oxide, water vapor in the region to carry on the reduction reaction, and the tar cracking reaction in this area, the residual gas output is given priority to with CO and H2, the temperature of this area is about 700 ~ 900 ℃. Area rich in tar from pyrolysis gas after high temperature oxidation zone and reduction zone, mainly for the hot coke tar cracking under high temperature in the gas, which has greatly reduced gas output in the tar.
 由于生物質物料的堆比重、粒度相差較大,這將明顯影響物料在爐內的駐留時間,這就要求氣化爐因物料不同而選用差別較大的氣化強度。對于堆比重較小或粒度較小的物料,其爐內駐留時間短,氣化強度應相應減小;反之,應增大氣化強度。一般氣化強度推薦值爲500~2000kg/(h·m2)。
As a result of the biomass material bulk density, particle size is large, it will significantly influence the dwell time of the material in the furnace, which requires a greater difference between gasifier with different materials to choose gasification intensity. For small bulk density or smaller particle size material, the furnace resides within short time, gasification intensity should be reduced accordingly; On the other hand, should increase the intensity of gasification. General gasification intensity recommended value for the 500 ~ 2000 kg/h · m2).
劃詞
  盡管下吸式氣化爐産出氣中焦油含量很少,但根據産出氣的不同應用場合,還應當配置不同的除焦油設備以及除塵、除濕設備以進一步提高産出氣的品質。
Although the little suction gasifier tar content in the gas output, but according to the different applications of gas output, should also configure different except the tar and dust removal equipment, dehumidification equipment to further improve the quality of the output gas.